Laporan pendeta Battle of Long Island - Sejarah

Laporan pendeta Battle of Long Island - Sejarah


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Brigadir Jenderal Samuel Parsons hingga John Adams.

Morrisania, 8 Oktober,

. Untuk memberi Anda gambaran yang jelas tentang masalah ini [Pertempuran Long Island pasti menyulitkan Anda dengan deskripsi bagian negara tempat t. musuh mendarat dan berkemah, dan tanah di antara itu dan garis os.

Dari titik daratan yang membentuk sisi timur Narrows, rumlah punggung bukit sekitar N. E. panjangnya sekitar 5 atau 6 mil, ditutupi dengan . kayu, yang berakhir di tanah kecil yang menjulang di dekat Jamaika; melewati perbukitan hanya ada tiga lintasan, satu di dekat Narrows, satu di jalan yang disebut Jalan Flatbush dan satu lagi disebut Jalan Bedford, merupakan jalan persilangan dari Bedford ke Flatbush yang terletak di sisi selatan perbukitan ini; lintasan ini melewati pegunungan atau perbukitan, mudah dipertahankan, sangat sempit dan dataran tinggi dan pegunungan di setiap sisinya. Ini adalah satu-satunya jalan yang dapat dilalui dari sisi selatan bukit ke lirtes kami, kecuali jalan menuju | di sekitar ujung timur bukit ke Jamaika. Di masing-masing jalan ini ditempatkan penjaga yang terdiri dari 800 orang, dan di sebelah timur mereka di hutan ditempatkan Kolonel M. dengan batalionnya untuk mengawasi gerakan musuh di bagian itu, dengan perintah I untuk menjaga agar kelompok terus-menerus mengintai ke dan di seberang Jalan Jamaika Para penjaga ditempatkan sedemikian rupa untuk menjaga komunikasi yang konstan antara tiga penjaga di tiga jalan. Di sebelah selatan bukit-bukit ini terdapat dataran besar yang membentang dari North River ke timur hingga Rockaway Bay mungkin 5 mil. dan di selatan ke suara yang dibatasi di selatan oleh Suara dan di utara oleh perbukitan. Bukit-bukit itu berasal dari dua atau tiga setengah mil dari garis kami. Musuh mendarat di dataran ini dan memperluas perkemahan mereka dari sungai ke Flatbush mungkin 3 atau 4 mil.

Pada hari kejutan itu, saya sedang bertugas, dan pada pagi hari pertama saya, para penjaga dari jalan barat dekat Narrows datang ke tempat saya dan memberi tahu saya bahwa musuh sedang maju dalam jumlah besar melalui jalan itu. Saya segera menemukan itu benar dan bahwa seluruh penjaga telah melarikan diri tanpa menembakkan pistol; barat (sebagai pembalasan, saya harus memberitahu Anda) semuanya adalah warga New York dan Pennsylvania; Saya menemukan pada siang hari yang cerah musuh sedang melalui hutan menuruni bukit di sisi utara, di mana dengan 2o penjaga buronan saya, yang bisa saya kumpulkan, saya mengambil pos di ketinggian di depan mereka sekitar setengah mil jarak yang menghentikan barisan mereka dan memberi waktu bagi Lord Sterling dengan pasukannya untuk maju; begitu banyak untuk jalan barat.

Di sebelah timur Jamaika Kolonel Miles menyuruh musuh berbaris tidak kurang dari 6 mil sampai mereka mendekati dua mil di belakang penjaga sebelum dia menemukan dan memberi tahu mereka mendekat. Ini juga terjadi di malam hari dan penjaga yang dijaga oleh orang-orang Pennsylvania bersama-sama pasukan New England dan New Jersey berada di dua jalan lain yang tidak berusaha dilewati musuh.

Kami terkejut penghalang utama kami hilang oleh kejutan itu, tetapi sejauh penutup malam adalah alasan kami memilikinya. Pendaratan pasukan tidak dapat dicegah pada jarak 6 atau 7 mil dari garis kami; di dataran di bawah meriam kapal, hanya terlihat dari pantai. Jumlah kami yang tidak sama tidak akan mengakui menyerang mereka di dataran saat mendarat.


Urutan pertempuran Pertempuran Long Island

Lord Stirling memimpin serangan terhadap Inggris untuk memungkinkan mundurnya pasukan lain di Pertempuran Long Island, 1776. Lukisan oleh Alonzo Chappel, 1858.

Pertempuran Long Island adalah kemenangan Inggris yang menentukan di awal Perang Revolusi Amerika atas pasukan Amerika di bawah komando Mayor Jenderal George Washington, dan pertempuran pembuka dalam kampanye Inggris yang sukses untuk menguasai New York City pada tahun 1776. Amerika telah melapisi pelabuhan New York dengan berbagai tingkat kubu dan benteng, yang dipertahankan oleh serangkaian pasukan Angkatan Darat Kontinental dan kompi milisi dari New York dan negara bagian di sekitarnya. Ώ] Setelah Inggris melakukan pendaratan tanpa lawan di Long Island pada pertengahan Agustus, Washington memperkuat posisi depan di perbukitan Brooklyn tengah. ΐ]

Pasukan Inggris dipimpin oleh Letnan Jenderal William Howe, dan termasuk veteran Pengepungan Boston, resimen baru dari Irlandia, dan menyewa pasukan Jerman dari Hesse-Kassel. Pada 27 Agustus 1776, Howe berhasil melakukan manuver mengapit di sekitar kiri Amerika sambil menduduki kanan Amerika dengan pertempuran pengalihan. Akibatnya, sebagian besar tentara Amerika menjadi terperangkap dan menyerah setelah mundur ke posisi bercokol terputus. Α] Dengan pengepungan posisi yang menjulang, Jenderal Washington berhasil menarik pasukannya yang tersisa ke Manhattan pada dini hari tanggal 29 Agustus. Β]


Pertempuran Pulau Panjang

Jenderal di Pertempuran Long Island: Mayor Jenderal William Howe memimpin pasukan Inggris dan Hessian melawan Jenderal George Washington dan Angkatan Darat Kontinental Amerika.

Ukuran tentara di Pertempuran Pulau Panjang: 20.000 Pasukan Inggris dan Hessian melawan sekitar 10.000 orang Amerika.

Seragam, senjata, dan perlengkapan di Battle of Long Island: Inggris mengenakan mantel merah, dengan topi kulit beruang untuk granat, topi tricorne untuk kompi batalion dan topi untuk infanteri ringan. Orang-orang Hessian mengenakan mantel biru. Para granat Hessian mengenakan topi mitra kuningan bergaya Prusia.

Orang Amerika tidak mengeluarkan seragam standar dan berpakaian sebaik mungkin.

Long Island: Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Kedua belah pihak dipersenjatai dengan senapan dan bayonet. Banyak orang dari resimen Pennsylvania membawa senjata senapan. Kedua belah pihak didukung oleh artileri.

Perwira Dragoon Ringan Inggris: Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Satu-satunya kavaleri di Pertempuran Long Island adalah Light Dragoons ke-17 Inggris dan beberapa kelompok berkuda kecil Amerika.

Pemenang Pertempuran Long Island: Inggris memenangkan pertempuran Long Island, mengusir Amerika dari Brooklyn dan memaksa mereka untuk mengungsi dari New York.

Resimen Inggris di Pertempuran Long Island:
Naga Cahaya ke-17

Kaki: batalyon komposit granat, infanteri ringan dan Pengawal Kaki (Pengawal ke-1, ke-2 dan ke-3), ke-4, ke-5, ke-10, ke-15, ke-22, ke-27, ke-28, ke-33, ke-35, ke-37. , 38 , 42 (Black Watch), 43 , 44 , 45 , 49 , 52 , 55 dan 63 Resimen Foot dan Fraser's Highlanders.

Peta Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika: peta oleh John Fawkes

Catatan Pertempuran Long Island:
Setelah penarikan tentara Inggris dari Boston pada 17 Maret 1776, Jenderal George Washington, dengan harapan bahwa Jenderal Howe akan menyerang New York, yang diadakan untuk Kongres, menggiring sebagian besar pasukannya ke selatan ke kota itu dari Boston.

Faktanya, Inggris berlayar ke utara dari Boston ke Halifax di Nova Scotia dan baru pada musim panas 1776 Howe meluncurkan serangannya ke New York.

Pasukan Inggris mendarat dari armada: Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Armada Inggris mencapai pintu masuk ke Sungai Hudson pada 29 Juni 1776 dan Howe mendarat di Staten Island pada 3 Juli. Kongres mendeklarasikan kemerdekaan Koloni Amerika pada hari berikutnya, 4 Juli 1776.

Bala bantuan mulai berdatangan dari Inggris dan Mayor Jenderal Clinton kembali dari usahanya yang gagal untuk menangkap Charleston, Carolina Selatan.

Lord Stirling, perwira Amerika, dengan Resimen Maryland ke-1, pada Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika: foto oleh Charles Henry Granger: ‘Rumah Batu Tua’ ada di kejauhan

Sementara itu, Amerika membangun baterai di Manhattan dan Long Island untuk mencegah armada Inggris menembus New York.

Dari 18.000 anak buahnya, Washington menempatkan sekitar 10.000 di benteng di Brooklyn Heights, menghadap laut dan pedalaman, untuk mempertahankan pendekatan ke Manhattan. Pasukan ini dikomandani oleh Mayor Jenderal Israel Putnam. Bagian dari pasukan Amerika menguasai daerah yang dibentengi di sepanjang pantai sementara badan utama mengambil posisi di sepanjang dataran tinggi di pedalaman.

Putnam telah bertugas selama Perang Prancis dan India di berbagai kompi jagawana dan di Pertempuran Bukit Bunker. Dia adalah pria yang tangguh dan populer, tetapi tua dan memiliki kemampuan terbatas dalam komando tingkat tinggi.

Serangan Inggris: Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika: gambar oleh John Fawkes

Pada 22 Agustus 1776, pasukan Inggris mendarat di Long Island di selatan benteng Amerika.

Pada tanggal 26 Agustus 1776, pasukan utama Inggris berbaris ke timur laut, di bawah garis dataran tinggi yang dipegang oleh Amerika untuk memulai serangan mereka. Informasi mengungkapkan kepada Inggris bahwa jalan paling utara dari tiga jalan melintasi dataran tinggi tidak dijaga. Howe membawa pasukannya melewati jalan ini dan menyerang divisi di sebelah kiri Amerika, yang dipimpin oleh Sullivan, di sayap dan belakang, sementara pasukan Jerman menyerang di depan. Pasukan Sullivan terpaksa meninggalkan posisi mereka dengan banyak kerugian dan mundur ke belakang benteng utama Brooklyn.

Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika: gambar oleh Alonzo Chapell

Di sebelah kanan posisi Amerika, Clinton menyerang dengan kekuatan yang lebih kecil. Komandan Amerika, Lord Stirling, dan anak buahnya melawan selama beberapa jam, sampai Inggris muncul di belakang mereka dari sisi lain. Kekuatan Stirling kemudian jatuh kembali ke garis pertahanan.

Pertempuran Brooklyn: Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Pada 28 Agustus 1776, Washington membawa bala bantuan ke Long Island dari New York, tetapi dengan meningkatnya ancaman dari Angkatan Laut Kerajaan, ia menarik diri dari Brooklyn pada 29 Agustus. Howe gagal mengganggu penarikan tersebut.

Penarikan Amerika melintasi sungai ke New York: Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Pada 15 September 1776, Washington terpaksa meninggalkan New York. Sekali lagi, Howe gagal mengganggu penarikan, kehilangan kesempatan untuk menangkap Washington dan sebagian besar Angkatan Darat Kontinental

Washington terpaksa melakukan penarikan pertempuran ke Sungai Delaware di mana ia musim dingin.

Korban di Pertempuran Long Island: Korban Inggris adalah sekitar 400 orang tewas dan terluka, sementara Amerika kehilangan sekitar 2.000 orang tewas, terluka dan ditangkap, dan beberapa senjata.

Tindak lanjut dari Pertempuran Long Island: Hilangnya Long Island dan New York merupakan periode terburuk perang bagi Washington dan penyebab kemerdekaan Amerika. Semangat di beberapa bagian Tentara Kontinental runtuh dan seluruh kompi ditinggalkan. George Washington menunjukkan kualitasnya dengan pulih dari bencana dan membangun kembali tentara Kontinental.

Old Stone House: Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Anekdot dari Pertempuran Long Island:

  • James Alexander, Lord Stirling, dari Bernard's Township, New Jersey, adalah seorang perwira Amerika terkemuka dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika dan mengklaim gelar Skotlandia Earl of Stirling. Pada Pertempuran Long Island, Stirling menahan serangan Inggris dengan Resimen Maryland ke-1, di Old Stone House dekat Gowanus Creek, memungkinkan Washington untuk mengevakuasi sisa tentara Amerika menyeberangi sungai ke New York. Stirling ditangkap oleh Inggris tetapi ditukar. Stirling menjadi salah satu bawahan terpenting Washington, tetapi meninggal tak lama sebelum perang berakhir.
  • The Old Stone House, tempat pertarungan Lord Stirling dengan pasukan Inggris, telah direkonstruksi, menggunakan beberapa bahan asli, dan dapat dilihat di Brooklyn, NYC.

Referensi untuk Pertempuran Long Island:

Sejarah Angkatan Darat Inggris oleh Sir John Fortescue

Perang Revolusi oleh Christopher Ward

Revolusi Amerika oleh Brendan Morrissey

George Washington dan evakuasi Amerika dari Brooklyn: Pertempuran Long Island pada 27 Agustus 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Pertempuran Perang Revolusi Amerika sebelumnya adalah Pertempuran Pulau Sullivan

Pertempuran berikutnya dari Perang Revolusi Amerika adalah Pertempuran Harlem Heights

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Pertempuran Pelabuhan Sag Dalam Perang Kemerdekaan

Monumen di lokasi Pertempuran Pelabuhan Sag di Long Island. Didedikasikan 23 Mei 1902.

Long Island adalah zona perang selama Revolusi Amerika. Kadang-kadang, dengan memperketat kontrol militer Inggris di New York City dan sekitarnya, tujuan mulia untuk kemerdekaan tampaknya berubah menjadi kerugian bagi Patriot lokal dan tentara Amerika.

Pertempuran besar telah berakhir dengan kekalahan bagi Patriot di Dataran Tinggi Guan. Jenderal George Washington dan pasukannya nyaris lolos dari penangkapan melalui kabut malam. Ribuan orang Amerika menderita penyakit dan infeksi dari kondisi menyedihkan di kapal penjara Inggris yang berlabuh di Teluk Wallabout. Banyak yang meninggal dan jasad mereka dibuang ke kuburan berair. Lebih jauh ke timur, pertanian dan hutan di Long Island menyaksikan kegiatan klandestin oleh jaringan mata-mata pemberontak yang meluas ke Setauket sementara konfrontasi yang sering antara warga Loyalis dan Patriot, banyak dari keluarga yang sama, mengakibatkan kematian. Pertempuran dan serangan yang melibatkan milisi saingan, Angkatan Darat Kontinental, tentara tetap Inggris dan tentara bayaran Hessian menyelimuti dataran dan menyelidiki pantai dari Hempstead ke Montauk.

Serangan patriot di pos-pos mahkota di pulau itu dimulai di Connecticut. Orang Amerika melintasi Long Island Sound pada malam hari. Mereka menavigasi teluk dan teluk kecil di pantai utara, berbaris diam-diam untuk mencegah penemuan dan menembus benteng di seluruh lebar dan sepanjang pulau. Sepanjang perang, perjalanan yang berani menghasilkan beberapa hasil yang bermanfaat untuk tujuan Amerika.

Pertempuran Pelabuhan Sag memiliki taktik yang sama. Namun, dalam pertarungan ini, Patriot menghadapi tantangan duel untuk menegosiasikan garpu kembar di ujung Long Island.

Serangan Pelabuhan Sag

Pertempuran Pelabuhan Sag, juga dikenal sebagai Serangan Meigs, adalah tanggapan atas serangan Inggris yang berhasil pada depot pasokan Patriot di Danbury, Connecticut, pada akhir April 1777. Pertempuran Ridgefield adalah bagian dari kampanye itu. Terkait dengan pertempuran ini adalah perjalanan terkenal Sybil Ludington yang berusia 16 tahun untuk melawan milisi Patriot dan kepahlawanan Jenderal Benedict Arnold untuk pihak Amerika.

Retribusi Long Island diselenggarakan di New Haven oleh Brigadir Jenderal Samuel Holden Parsons. Menurut laporannya kepada Jenderal Washington, pasukan 234 orang dari beberapa resimen berkumpul di New Haven di bawah komando Connecticut Kolonel Kembali Jonathan Meigs. Pasukan mendayung 13 kapal ikan paus ke Guilford pada tanggal 21 Mei. Lautan yang ganas dan angin kencang mencegah pasukan melintasi Long Island Sound sampai sore hari tanggal 23 Mei. Dua kapal selam bersenjata dan satu kapal selam tidak bersenjata menemani para perampok. Hanya 170 yang tiba di dekat Southold di North Fork of Long Island sekitar pukul 6 sore.

Pasukan Inggris telah menduduki Sag Harbor di South Fork of Long Island sejak Agustus 1776 Battle of Long Island (juga dikenal sebagai Battle of Brooklyn). Posisi pertahanan yang kuat telah didirikan di Bukit Gedung Pertemuan. Pekerjaan tanah melindungi sekitar 70 tentara yang tergabung dalam unit Loyalis Letnan Kolonel Stephen De Lancey (ejaan keluarga juga terdaftar sebagai de Lancy dan Delancey). Pasukan ini berada di bawah komando Kapten James Raymond. Kapal-kapal Angkatan Laut Kerajaan yang berpatroli di ujung timur Long Island Sound memperoleh perbekalan dari Sag Harbor saat berlabuh di Teluk Gardiner di dekatnya.

Setelah kedatangannya di Southold, Kolonel Meigs mengintai daerah tersebut. Dia mengetahui bahwa sebagian besar tentara Inggris telah dikirim ke New York City dan hanya pasukan kecil Loyalis De Lancey yang tersisa di Sag Harbor. Anak buah Miegs membawa 11 perahu paus melintasi North Fork pulau itu untuk mencapai salah satu teluk di antara dua pertigaan itu. Perahu diluncurkan kembali dengan 130 orang mendayung menuju Sag Harbor. Menjelang tengah malam, Patriots mendarat sekitar empat mil dari pelabuhan. Meigs membentuk anak buahnya untuk pawai singkat, tiba di pelabuhan sekitar pukul dua pagi.

Komandan kemudian membagi pasukannya. Satu detasemen menyerbu pekerjaan tanah di Bukit Meeting House di dekatnya. Detasemen kedua yang terdiri dari sekitar 40 orang ditugaskan untuk menghancurkan kapal-kapal Inggris dan menghilangkan atau menangkap perbekalan.

Serangan di bukit itu dilakukan secara diam-diam dengan bayonet tetap. Hanya satu tembakan dilaporkan telah ditembakkan oleh seorang tentara. Di tepi laut, sebuah sekunar Inggris dengan 12 senjata menembaki orang Amerika saat mereka membakar kapal. Dua belas kapal hancur. Enam Loyalis terbunuh. Amerika tidak menderita korban. Para perampok menangkap 53 tahanan di garnisun dan 37 di dermaga. Para tahanan dievakuasi ke Connecticut.

Setelah Dan Hari Ini

Kemenangan di Sag Harbor menandai keberhasilan Amerika pertama yang signifikan di Negara Bagian New York sejak New York City dan Long Island jatuh ke tangan Inggris. Operasi Patriot tambahan, termasuk penggerebekan dan jaringan mata-mata Washington, berlanjut di Long Island selama sisa perang.

Sebagai pengakuan atas keberhasilannya, Kolonel Meigs dianugerahi "pedang elegan" oleh Kongres Kontinental Kedua. Sebuah batu peringatan pertempuran ditempatkan di situs pada tanggal 23 Mei 1902.

Saat ini, bukit yang ditempati oleh garnisun Loyalis dan diserang oleh Patriot adalah pemakaman lokal. Banyak batu nisan berasal dari akhir 1700-an dan sejumlah besar yang dikebumikan adalah Patriot lokal. Di lokasi pertempuran, dengan menghalangi intrusi modern, pengunjung dapat menatap lereng properti dan memvisualisasikan perjuangan kemerdekaan yang terjadi di sini hampir 250 tahun yang lalu.

Mike Virgintino adalah penulis dari Freedomland USA.: Sejarah Definitif, cerita tentang taman hiburan Amerika yang diterbitkan oleh Theme Park Press. Itu dapat ditemukan di Amazon, eBay, Goodreads dan Barnes & Noble. Cukup klik pada gambar untuk tautan langsung ke Amazon.

Daftar tentara Perang Revolusi yang dikebumikan di kuburan.

Sebuah nisan untuk seorang prajurit Perang Revolusi di lokasi Pertempuran Pelabuhan Sag.

Pertempuran Pelabuhan Sag di ujung Long Island terjadi di bukit ini yang merupakan tempat peristirahatan terakhir bagi para Patriot setempat yang berjuang untuk kemerdekaan.


Mundur ke Manhattan

Pada malam 29-30 Agustus 1776, pasukan Amerika diangkut dari Brooklyn ke Manhattan. Washington menulis kepada John Hancock, Presiden Kongres Kontinental.

Kecenderungan serta tugas akan Mendorong saya untuk memberi Kongres Informasi paling awal tentang pemindahan saya dan Pasukan dari Long Island & Ketergantungannya pada Kota ini malam sebelumnya, Tetapi kelelahan ekstrem yang telah dialami oleh saya dan Keluarga sebanyak dari Cuaca sejak Pertunangan pada tanggal 27 membuat saya & mereka sama sekali tidak layak untuk mengambil pena— Sejak Senin, jarang ada di antara kami yang keluar dari Garis sampai perjalanan kami melintasi East River dilakukan Kemarin pagi & selama Empat Puluh Delapan Jam sebelumnya saya hampir tidak pernah turun dari Kuda saya dan tidak pernah memejamkan mata sehingga saya cukup tidak layak untuk menulis atau mendikte sampai Pagi ini.

Retret kami dilakukan tanpa Kehilangan Orang atau Amunisi dan dalam urutan yang lebih baik dari yang saya harapkan dari Pasukan dalam situasi kami —Kami membawa semua Gudang Meriam & kami, kecuali beberapa bagian yang berat, yang dalam kondisi bumi diguyur hujan terus menerus, kami menemukan di Percobaan tidak praktis—Roda Kereta yang tenggelam ke Hobs, membuat tidak mungkin untuk seluruh kekuatan kami untuk menyeret mereka—Kami meninggalkan sedikit perbekalan di Pulau kecuali beberapa Sapi yang telah didorong dalam Garis kami dan yang setelah banyak upaya untuk memaksa melintasi Perairan kami temukan Mustahil untuk dilakukan, dalam keadaan seperti kami …

Dalam Pertunangan pada Jenderal ke-27 Sullivan & Stirling dijadikan tawanan … Saya juga belum bisa mendapatkan laporan yang tepat tentang Kerugian Kami, kami kira Itu dari 700 menjadi Seribu, terbunuh & diambil— Genl Sullivan berkata bahwa Lord Howe sangat ingin bertemu dengan beberapa Anggota Kongres untuk tujuan apa dia diizinkan keluar & untuk mengomunikasikan kepada mereka apa yang terjadi antara dia & Yang Mulia—saya telah menyetujui kepergiannya ke Philadelphia, karena saya tidak bermaksud atau menganggap itu hak untuk menahan atau mencegah dia memberikan informasi seperti yang dia miliki di Instans ini.

Saya dengan hormat saya untuk Kongres Mereka & Anda Yang Paling Patuh Dia Melayani

Permusuhan berhenti selama sepuluh hari sementara Howe pergi ke New Jersey untuk berbicara dengan delegasi dari Kongres. Pada 11 September 1776, Edward Rutledge melaporkan hasilnya ke Washington:

Saya harus memohon pada Cuti untuk memberi tahu Anda bahwa Konferensi kami dengan Lord Howe telah dihadiri tanpa Keuntungan langsung— Dia menyatakan bahwa dia tidak memiliki Kekuatan untuk menganggap kita sebagai Negara Merdeka, dan kita dengan mudah menemukan bahwa jika kita masih Bergantung, kita tidak akan mengharapkan apa pun dari mereka yang menjadi haknya. —Dia berbicara secara keseluruhan kepada para jenderal, bahwa dia datang ke sini untuk berkonsultasi, menasihati, & berunding dengan Tuan-tuan dari Pengaruh terbesar di Koloni tentang Keluhan mereka, bahwa Raja akan merevisi Undang-undang Parlemen & Instruksi kerajaan atas Laporan seperti harus dibuat dan muncul untuk memperbaiki Ganti Rugi kami atas Kehendak & Kesenangan Yang Mulia —Percakapan semacam ini berlangsung selama beberapa Jam & seperti yang telah saya katakan tanpa Efek apa pun — Oleh karena itu, Ketergantungan Kami terus berada (di bawah Tuhan) pada Kebijaksanaan & Ketabahan & Kekuatan Anda—Agar Anda bisa sukses seperti saya mengenal Anda layak adalah keinginan saya yang paling tulus … (Seluruh surat di sini)


Memegang sejarah di tangan Anda: Surat langka dari permukaan Revolusi Amerika

(Kredit: Hak Cipta G. Gosen Buku Langka & Old Paper)

Surat pendek itu dihapus dengan cepat, 246 tahun yang lalu bulan ini. Dikirim dari New London, Conn. melintasi Long Island Sound ke Shelter Island, ia tiba dalam keadaan lembab dari tempat yang seharusnya merupakan persimpangan berbatu, tetapi hingga hari ini masih kokoh dan dapat dibaca.

Ditulis pada tanggal 27 April 1775 dari Thomas Fosdick kepada saudara iparnya Nicoll Havens, surat itu adalah wawasan tentang emosi yang dirasakan orang Amerika pada saat Revolusi Amerika lahir.

Thomas Fosdick menulis: “Saudaraku yang Terhormat, Saya Mengirimkan Anda Menyertakan Koran Berita yang berisi paling banyak Berita Menghebohkan tentang Prajurit Raja yang Menyerang Amerika, Saya Telah Recd the News Last Night, & adalah salah satu Fixing To Go Segera untuk Boston , Jadi saya hanya punya Waktu Untuk Memberitahu Anda bahwa saya adalah salah satu yang Pergi yang merupakan Saudara Terkasih Anda. Fosdik.”

Lebih jauh di bawah kertas, dia menambahkan: “Berita Pagi Ini Tiba bahwa mereka telah memiliki Tiga Pertempuran Sejak Berita pertama Datang —T. Fosdik.”

Dikatakan bahwa keberanian berbaris menuju suara tembakan untuk tujuan baik itulah yang dikatakan Fosdick kepada saudara iparnya di Pulau Penampungan yang sedang dia persiapkan. "The a Larming News" adalah laporan tentang Pertempuran Lexington dan Concord pada 19 April 1775. Dan Fosdick muda pergi ke Massachusetts untuk mendaftar.

Dia naik ke pangkat mayor dan menjadi ajudan Brigadir Jenderal John Glover, bertempur di banyak pertempuran Perang Kemerdekaan. Dia disebutkan dalam kiriman ke Jenderal George Washington, suatu kehormatan tinggi bagi setiap tentara Amerika.

Surat, sejarah yang dapat Anda pegang di tangan Anda, sekarang dijual oleh Manhattan's Gosen Rare Books & Old Paper. Pemilik Gary Gosen mengatakan kepada Reporter bahwa dia memiliki beberapa barang bersejarah lainnya yang berkaitan dengan Shelter Island. Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, hubungi Mr. Gosen di [email protected] .

Pertempuran Lexington dan Concord adalah puncak dari bertahun-tahun perselisihan yang membara dan kebencian pahit antara Kerajaan Inggris dan penjajah Amerika, yang secara bertahap, tak terhindarkan, menyulut api revolusi dan perang. Massachusetts adalah pusat semangat revolusioner, dengan warga mempersenjatai diri dan mempersiapkan pertarungan skala penuh dengan pasukan Inggris.

Pada malam hari tanggal 18 April 1775, Redcoats berbaris dari Boston ke Concord untuk menyelidiki laporan tentang senjata yang disimpan untuk para pemberontak. Tukang perak dan revolusioner Paul Revere memberi tahu milisi lokal, yang siap di Lexington untuk menyerang tentara tetap Inggris. Orang-orang Amerika yang kurang terlatih dan tidak bersenjata bertempur dengan sengit dan mengusir Inggris, yang mundur kembali ke Boston.

Setiap orang Amerika tahu cerita, diabadikan dalam puisi khususnya, "The Landlord's Tale," yang dibuka, "Dengar, anak-anakku/ dan kamu akan mendengar/ Tentang perjalanan tengah malam Paul Revere,/ Pada tanggal delapan belas April, di Tujuh puluh lima …”

Tetapi seperti yang dicatat oleh Ralph Waldo Emerson, bukan hanya orang Amerika yang terpengaruh oleh pertempuran Lexington dan Concord: “Di dekat jembatan kasar yang melengkungkan banjir/ Bendera mereka untuk angin bulan April dikibarkan,/ Di sini sekali para petani yang diperangi berdiri/ Dan melepaskan tembakan yang terdengar di seluruh dunia.”

Nicoll Havens, yang menikah dengan Anna Fosdick, saudara perempuan Thomas Fosdick, memainkan peran besar dalam sejarah kota, wilayah, dan negaranya. Dia menandatangani “Deklarasi Kemerdekaan” Shelter Island, tertanggal Mei 1775, yang dirancang dan ditandatangani oleh kepala rumah tangga pria pulau itu hanya satu bulan setelah Pertempuran Lexington dan Concord. Dalam hidupnya ia memegang banyak kantor terpilih di Pulau Penampungan, ditambah kantor kabupaten dan negara bagian.

Dalam cerita Reporter dari Juli 2019, Karen Kiaer, sejarawan Shelter Island Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), dan Joyce Bowditch-Bausman, wali kehormatan DAR, berbicara tentang bagaimana selama Revolusi, ketika tetangga bisa menjadi teman atau musuh , Shelter Island secara mengejutkan mendapat dukungan seragam untuk kemerdekaan dari Inggris,

Menurut Ms. Kiaer, Pulau membayar harga mahal untuk pemberontakan mereka. Dalam edisi 2010, majalah DAR, "Portal Amerika," ada catatan tentang komitmen penduduk pulau terhadap Revolusi. Setelah kekalahan George Washington pada Agustus 1776 di Pertempuran Long Island, 1.000 tentara revolusioner ditangkap. Tawanan perang itu ditahan di penjara yang dibangun dengan tergesa-gesa, juga di kapal penjara, berlabuh di East End, dan menurut catatan sejarah, disimpan dalam kondisi yang menyedihkan, dengan kepadatan penduduk, kelaparan, dan penyakit yang merajalela.

Beberapa dari 1.000 patriot itu berasal dari Shelter Island, dan beberapa dimakamkan di Pulau.

Dan sekarang, surat lama dari satu saudara ipar yang lain telah muncul, memberi kita wawasan tentang urgensi dan semangat dua patriot pada saat roda sejarah dunia berputar.

Ambrose Clancy telah menjadi editor Shelter Island Reporter sejak 2012. Dia bekerja sebagai staf reporter untuk The North Shore Sun, Southampton Press dan editor asosiasi Riverhead News-Review dan editor di Long Island Business News.

Ingin mengomentari artikel ini? Kirimkan kami surat kepada editor sebagai gantinya.


Urutan Pertempuran Pertempuran Long Island - Pasukan Amerika

Pasukan yang disusun untuk melawan Inggris terutama berasal dari resimen Angkatan Darat Kontinental, meskipun ada sejumlah besar unit milisi dari New York, Connecticut, New Jersey, dan Pennsylvania di lapangan juga. Sejumlah besar Kontinental telah berpartisipasi dalam Pengepungan Boston, setelah itu mereka pindah untuk bergabung dengan pasukan yang sudah berada di New York untuk mempersiapkan pertahanannya. Beberapa pasukan telah berpartisipasi dalam ekspedisi melawan Quebec yang dimulai pada musim gugur 1775. Upaya itu berakhir pada Juni 1776 setelah retret yang membawa bencana ke Fort Ticonderoga didorong oleh kedatangan pasukan Inggris yang besar di Kota Quebec, dan beberapa dari pasukan itu kemudian dilarikan ke selatan ke membantu di New York. Pertahanan Amerika di Long Island menjadi rumit ketika Mayor Jenderal Nathanael Greene jatuh sakit pada tanggal 15 Agustus. Dia telah mengarahkan pekerjaan pertahanan di Long Island, dan dengan demikian menjadi jenderal yang paling akrab dengan medan. Washington menggantikannya pada 20 Agustus dengan Mayor Jenderal John Sullivan, baru-baru ini kembali dari Ticonderoga. Setelah mengirim bala bantuan ke Long Island pada 25 Agustus, Washington menggantikan Sullivan dengan pangkat mayor jenderal, Israel Putnam. David Hackett Fischer mengamati bahwa situasi komando Amerika "sangat kacau sehingga unit-unit tidak yakin tentang komandan mereka dan tidak yakin dengan posisi yang harus mereka pertahankan."

Dasar dari urutan pertempuran ini adalah pengembalian yang disiapkan oleh Jenderal Washington pada 3 Agustus. Ini mencakup semua unit yang ditempatkan di wilayah New York, tidak hanya mereka yang terlibat dalam pertempuran. Total yang disediakan adalah daftar dari semua pasukan, bukan hanya mereka yang terdaftar sebagai siap bertugas. Sejumlah besar tentara sakit selama bulan Juli dan Agustus. Misalnya, Jenderal William Heath, menulis dalam memoarnya, mencatat bahwa sekitar 10.000 orang sakit pada 8 Agustus, dan Washington melaporkan pada 2 September memiliki kurang dari 20.000 orang yang hadir dan layak untuk bertugas. Pengembalian kemudian tampaknya tidak mungkin: Washington menulis kepada Kongres pada tanggal 26 Agustus bahwa "ia mengubah dan mengubah yang telah dialami resimen akhir-akhir ini telah mencegah mereka kembali dengan semestinya, dan tentu saja menempatkannya di luar kekuasaan saya untuk mengirimkan seorang jenderal tentara. ."

Catatan untuk setiap unit memberikan beberapa indikasi di mana ia ditempatkan, dan gerakan seperti apa yang dilakukan, terutama antara 22 dan 29 Agustus, periode waktu di mana ada beberapa pergerakan signifikan dan penugasan kembali pasukan. Sejumlah unit dipindahkan dari Manhattan ke Long Island setelah Inggris mendarat di Long Island, dan lebih banyak lagi dikirim selama dan setelah pertempuran untuk memperkuat pertahanan sebelum akhirnya ditinggalkan pada 29 Agustus.

Korban Amerika yang terperinci tidak tersedia karena banyak dari catatan yang relevan dihancurkan oleh api pada tahun 1800. Perkiraan Inggris dan Hessian menempatkan total kerugian Amerika sekitar 3.000, dan pengembalian yang disiapkan oleh Jenderal Howe mendaftarkan 1.097 tahanan, termasuk Jenderal John Sullivan, Lord Stirling , dan Nathaniel Woodhull. Jumlah korban untuk unit tertentu jarang terjadi. Sejarawan John Gallagher telah menyusun daftar parsial mengkonfirmasikan 1.120 tewas atau hilang, mencatat bahwa pengembalian untuk 52 dari 70 unit di bawah komando Washington hilang. Resimen Maryland dari William Smallwood hampir musnah, menderita 256 tewas dan lebih dari 100 ditangkap dari unit yang berjumlah hampir 400. Angka korban terdaftar sebagai catatan jika tersedia untuk unit tertentu.

Satuan Komandan Ukuran unit Catatan
Divisi Putnam
Komandan Mayor Jenderal Israel Putnam 5,615 Divisi ini ditempatkan di Manhattan selama pertempuran.
Brigade Baca Kolonel Joseph Read 1,997 Brigade ini sebenarnya ditugaskan ke Brig. Jenderal James Clinton. Baca memerintahkannya dalam ketidakhadiran sang jenderal.
Resimen Kontinental ke-3 Kolonel Ebenezer Learned 521
Resimen Kontinental ke-13 Kolonel Joseph Read 505
Resimen Kontinental ke-23 Kolonel John Bailey 503
Resimen Kontinental ke-26 Kolonel Loammi Baldwin 468
Brigade Scott Brigadir Jenderal John Morin Scott 1,527 Unit ini awalnya ditempatkan di Manhattan bagian bawah. It was sent to Long Island before the battle.
New York militia Colonel John Lasher 510
New York levies Colonel William Malcolm 297
New York militia Colonel Samuel Drake 459
New York militia Colonel Cornelius Humphrey 261
Fellows' Brigade Brigadier General John Fellows 2,091 This brigade was stationed on Manhattan, and did not participate in the battle.
Massachusetts militia Colonel Jonathan Holman 606 This unit was from Worcester County.
Massachusetts militia Colonel Simeon Cary 569 This unit had men from Bristol and Plymouth Counties.
Massachusetts militia Colonel Jonathan Smith 551 This unit was from Berkshire County.
14th (Marblehead) Continental Regiment Colonel John Glover 365 Glover's regiment, stationed on Manhattan during the battle, was sent over to Brooklyn on August 28, and was instrumental in evacuating the army on the night of August 29–30.
Heath's Division
Komandan Major General William Heath 4,265 Heath, based at King's Bridge, was responsible for the northernmost defenses, on the Hudson just above Manhattan. Most of his units were not involved in the battle.
Mifflin's Brigade Brigadier General Thomas Mifflin 2,453 This brigade was stationed at Harlem Heights, and did not participate in the battle. Mifflin went to Brooklyn with some of his troops, and commanded the rear of the retreat to Manhattan.
5th Pennsylvania Battalion Colonel Robert Magaw 480 These units was sent to Brooklyn on the morning of August 28.
3rd Pennsylvania Battalion Colonel John Shee 496
27th Continental Regiment Colonel Israel Hutchinson 513 This unit (along with John Glover's) manned the boats during the retreat.
16th Continental Regiment Colonel Paul Dudley Sargent 527
Ward's Connecticut Regiment Colonel Andrew Ward 437
Clinton's Brigade Brigadier General George Clinton 1,812 This unit was stationed in upper Manhattan before the battle.
New York militia Colonel Isaac Nichol 289 This unit was from Orange County.
New York militia Colonel Thomas Thomas 354 This unit was from Westchester County.
New York militia Colonel James Swartwout 364 This unit was from Dutchess County.
New York militia Colonel Levi Paulding 368 This unit was from Ulster County.
New York militia Colonel Morris Graham 437 This unit was from Dutchess County.
Spencer's Division
Komandan Major General Joseph Spencer 5,889 Initially stationed in lower Manhattan, some of these units were sent over to Long Island before the battle.
Parson's Brigade Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons 2,469 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target. Parsons had overall command of the Gowanus Heights defenses.
10th Continental Regiment Colonel John Tyler 569
17th Continental Regiment Colonel Jedediah Huntington 348 This unit suffered heavy casualties: 199 killed or missing.
20th Continental Regiment Colonel John Durkee 520
21st Continental Regiment Colonel Jonathan Ward 502
22nd Continental Regiment Colonel Samuel Wyllys 530 This regiment was assigned to guard the Bedford Pass the night before the battle.
Wadsworth's Brigade Brigadier General James Wadsworth 3,420
1st Connecticut State Levies Colonel Gold Selleck Silliman 415 This unit was initially stationed on Manhattan, but was transferred to Long Island before the battle.
2nd Connecticut State Levies Colonel Fisher Gay 449
3rd Connecticut State Levies Colonel Comfort Sage 482 This unit was initially stationed on Manhattan, but was transferred to Long Island before the battle.
4th Connecticut State Levies Colonel Samuel Selden 464
5th Connecticut State Levies Colonel William Douglas 506
6th Connecticut State Levies Colonel John Chester 535 This unit was initially stationed on Manhattan, but was transferred to Long Island before the battle. It was assigned to guard the Bedford Pass the night before the battle.
7th Connecticut State Levies Colonel Phillip Burr Bradley 569
Sullivan's Division
Komandan Major General John Sullivan 5,688 Sullivan took command of this division on August 20, when Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene fell ill. The division was on the far left of the American line, and suffered the most from the British onslaught. Sullivan was the most senior Continental officer taken prisoner in the battle.
Stirling's Brigade Brigadier General William Alexander (Lord Stirling) 3,700 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target. Stirling was stationed on the right side of the American line on the Gowanus Heights. His command was almost wiped out after becoming surrounded, and he was taken prisoner.
1st Maryland Regiment Colonel William Smallwood 400 This unit anchored the right against British General Grant's diversionary attack. Some of its men, the Maryland 400, fought a vicious rearguard action making possible the escape of much of Stirling's command. More than 100 men were captured and 256 killed, practically wiping the regiment out.
1st Delaware Regiment Colonel John Haslet 750 This unit fought in the center against British General Grant's diversionary attack.
Pennsylvania State Rifle Regiment Colonel Samuel Miles 650 This unit was responsible for guarding the hills at the far left of the American line. It suffered heavy casualties: 209 killed or missing.
Pennsylvania State Battalion of Musketry Colonel Samuel John Atlee 650 This unit fought against British General Grant's diversionary attack, and suffered 89 casualties.
Pennsylvania militia Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas Lutz 200
Pennsylvania militia Lieutenant Colonel Peter Hachlein 200
Pennsylvania militia Major William Hay 200
McDougall's Brigade Brigadier General Alexander McDougall 1,988 Originally stationed in lower Manhattan, some of these troops were sent to Long Island before the battle.
1st New York Regiment Colonel Goose Van Schaick 428 This was McDougall's regiment prior to his promotion.
2nd New York Regiment Colonel Rudolphus Ritzema 434
19th Continental Regiment Colonel Charles Webb 542 This unit was sent to Long Island before the battle.
Artificers Colonel Jonathan Brewer 584
Greene's Division
Komandan Major General Nathanael Greene 3,912 Greene was taken ill on August 15 his division was commanded by John Sullivan. It was the principal force defending Long Island.
Nixon's Brigade Brigadier General John Nixon 2,318 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target.
1st Pennsylvania Regiment Colonel Edward Hand 288
Varnum's Rhode Island Regiment Colonel James Mitchell Varnum 391
Hitchcock's Rhode Island Regiment Colonel Daniel Hitchcock 368
4th Continental Regiment Colonel Thomas Nixon 419
7th Continental Regiment Colonel William Prescott 399
12th Continental Regiment Colonel Moses Little 453
Heard's Brigade Brigadier General Nathaniel Heard 1,594 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target.
New Jersey State Troops Colonel David Forman 372
New Jersey militia Colonel Philip Johnston 235 Johnston's unit was on guard duty on the Flatbush Road the night before the attack. Johnston was mortally wounded in the battle.
New Jersey militia Colonel Ephraim Martin 382
New Jersey militia Colonel Silas Newcomb 336
New Jersey militia Colonel Phillip Van Cortlandt 269
Other units
Connecticut militia brigade Brigadier General Oliver Wolcott 4,200 This brigade was stationed on Manhattan, and did not participate in the battle. The unit strengths are described in surviving documents as an average.
2nd Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Jabez Thompson 350
13th Connecticut Militia Colonel Benjamin Hinman 350
18th Connecticut Militia Colonel Jonathan Pettibone 350
16th Connecticut Militia Colonel Joseph Platt Cooke 350
23rd Connecticut Militia Colonel Matthew Talcott 350
22nd Connecticut Militia Colonel Samuel Chapman 350
10th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Jonathan Baldwin 350
9th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel John Mead 350
4th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Ichabod Lewis 350
19th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel George Pitkin 350
15th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Selah Heart (taken prisoner 9/15/1776) Major Simeon Strong 350
1st Connecticut Militia Major Roger Newberry 350
Long Island militia Brigadier General Nathaniel Woodhull 450 These units performed "fatigue" work, principally driving cattle. Stationed on the American left, it included small cavalry units familiar with the area, but these were not used for guard duty.
Long Island militia Colonel Josiah Smith 250 This unit was from Suffolk County.
Long Island militia Colonel Jeronimus Remsen 200 This unit was mainly from Queens County, and included men from Kings County.
Artileri Colonel Henry Knox 403
Total size 30,434
Unless otherwise cited, the information in this table is provided by Fischer, pp. 385–388.

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Battle of Long Island

As George Washington had anticipated, British forces under General William Howe departed from Halifax in the late spring of 1776 and headed for New York City. They entered the harbor in late June and on July 2 established headquarters on Staten Island. Ten days later, Admiral Lord Richard Howe arrived with additional forces. Over a period of several weeks the British army grew to about 32,000 men, including more than 8,000 mercenaries hired for service in America. Washington had moved the Continental Army from Boston following the British evacuation. He realized that New York City would be difficult to defend, but its strategic and symbolic importance dictated that the effort be made. Fortifications were erected around the city, which was then confined to the southern tip of Manhattan, as well as on the Brooklyn Heights area of Long Island to the east of the city. The Americans were unsure of where the British would choose to strike first. Beginning on August 22, the British plan began to become clear. Soldiers were transported from Staten Island to Long Island by way of Gravesend Bay. Meanwhile, on the waters off New York City, Lord Howe exchanged fire with American batteries on Manhattan. Within a few days, 20,000 British soldiers congregated in the vicinity of the village of Flatbush. The American army of 10,000 was deployed in a series of fortified positions on Brooklyn Heights and spread across the surrounding Heights of Guan. Several skirmishes occurred between small bands of the opposing forces over the following days.

On the night of August 26, British forces under General Howe were able to take advantage of intelligence provided by local Loyalists, who identified an undefended pass leading up to the Heights of Guan. Under the cover of darkness British soldiers managed to gain a position between American forces on Guan and the main force on Brooklyn Heights. In the daylight of the 27th the British opened fire on astonished Americans, who quickly recognized their dire situation. Soldiers under John Sullivan of New Hampshire broke and ran. Fellow American commander William Alexander of Pennsylvania, known as Lord Stirling because of his claim to a Scottish title, fought effectively for a while, but was slowly encircled by numerically superior British forces. It was evident that disaster could be averted only by retreating down the hill and across the swamplands by Gowanus Creek. Such a move, however, would expose the Americans to deadly fire from the British in the hills above. To provide cover for the retreat, Alexander and Major Mordecai Gist led a band of 250 Marylanders on a direct assault against the British lines. The Americans broke under withering fire, but regrouped and bought sufficient time to allow the bulk of the army to flee, often throwing arms aside, to Brooklyn Heights. Only a handful of the Marylanders were able to escape. Alexander was eventually surrounded and he surrendered, and Sullivan was captured. The Americans listed about 1,400 casualties from the Battle of Long Island. The British toll numbered fewer than 400. This embarrassing display was observed by a helpless Washington from atop Brooklyn Heights. For the next two days, he and his army expected a British assault, an event that would most likely had led to a decisive British victory. During this period of quiet, the weather was unseasonably cold and a steady rain fell American morale was at a low point and many soldiers talked of surrender. On the advice of his subordinates, Washington took advantage of British inaction and planned a retreat to Manhattan. British control of the harbor and rivers made this a risky prospect. Nevertheless, on the evening of August 29, the American army was ferried across the East River in a flotilla of small craft provided by sympathetic civilians. The retreat was aided immensely by calm waters that enabled the overloaded boats to make the crossing safely and by thick fog in the early hours of the next day that masked the departure of the last soldiers — which included a somber Washington. The question remains about why the British did not use their superiority on land and sea to strike a potentially lethal blow against the Patriot cause. Most historians agree that William Howe chose not to assault Brooklyn Heights because of his earlier experience at Bunker Hill where he also commanded an overwhelming force, but suffered extremely heavy losses. The general decided instead to set up a siege, believing that time was on his side. The failure of his brother, Admiral Howe, to halt the retreat across the East River has been ascribed to unfavorable winds that prevented his ships from destroying the tiny American flotilla and its human cargo. More recent historians, however, have argued that no ill wind was blowing at the time and that the admiral, a friend of America, was hoping to conclude affairs with a peace settlement, not a military victory to conclude the Battle of Long Island. See also campaigns of 1776 and timeline of the War of Independence.


George Washington: Defeated at the Battle of Long Island

General George Washington knew he had badly miscalculated. On August 27, 1776, British forces under a far more experienced military professional, General Sir William Howe, had soundly drubbed the American army in the Battle of Long Island and were now poised to finish it off. Outnumbered and out- generaled, with their backs to the East River and the British in front of them, the Americans appeared doomed. If Washington lost his army, it could mean the end of the Revolution.

Washington was well aware that his experience in the French and Indian War, 20 years earlier, hardly qualified him for his current position as commander in chief of the American armies. As a young colonial officer serving the British, Washington had lost a battle to the French at his hastily erected Fort Necessity in 1754. Serving as a militia colonel under British General Edward Braddock in 1755, the Virginian had fought gallantly at Fort Duquesne, but the British lost anyway. His one success had been a surprise attack against a small French party early in the war. ‘I heard the bullets whistle,’ Washington wrote to his brother Lawrence afterward ‘and believe me, there is something charming in the sound.’ (After a London newspaper printed Washington’s letter, King George II wryly remarked, ‘He would not say so had he heard many.’) The Americans were finding the sound somewhat less charming after the battles at Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill. Whether they were prepared for it or not, the colonies were now at war — a war requiring an army and a commander in chief to lead it.

Patriot leader John Adams and his cousin Samuel knew that finding a commander acceptable to all the colonies would be difficult. Charles Lee, Benjamin Church, Israel Putnam, and even John Hancock wanted the position. But the two Adams men decided Washington would lend dignity to the cause. Furthermore, placing a Virginian in the post would help deflect criticism that Massachusetts was dominating the Revolution. Although he did not lobby for the post, Washington signaled his willingness to accept it by wearing his scarlet and blue uniform of the Virginia militia to the meetings of the Second Continental Congress.

On June 15, 1775, the Congress approved the choice of Washington. The new commander in chief then read a letter of acceptance. ‘Mr. President, tho’ I am truly sensible of the high honour done me in this appointment, yet I feel distress from the consciousness that my abilities and Military experience may not be equal to the extensive and important Trust,’ he said. ‘However, as the Congress desires, I will enter upon the momentous duty and, exert every power I Possess in their service for the Support of the Glorious Cause . . . .’ He also said he would keep an ‘exact account’ of his expenses and that he would accept no more than that for his service.

Washington achieved a quick victory in Boston when he placed cannon captured at Fort Ticonderoga atop Dorchester Heights and forced the British out of the city. Washington and his most experienced and trusted commander at that time, General Charles Lee, believed that the British would probably focus their efforts on the New York area. It was a logical assumption. If General Howe controlled New York City, he could send armies north or south while his brother, Admiral Richard ‘Black Dick’ Howe, could easily lend naval support wherever General Howe might need it.

Washington and Lee knew it would be difficult to defend New York, but it was a political necessity. At the very least the Americans had to make the British pay severely for the city, as they had made them pay at Bunker Hill. So with Lee back in the Boston area, Washington marched to New York to try to accomplish the nearly impossible. He planned to defend New York City by digging in and making earthworks for gun positions in Manhattan, in Brooklyn, and on the Battery. In addition, he intended to build Fort Washington up on Manhattan Island’s northern tip. The fortifications themselves were well engineered and executed, but the plan was too ambitious and spread the Patriot forces too thin.

General Washington placed his largest contingent of troops, numbering 4,000 and commanded by Nathanael Greene, on Long Island’s Brooklyn Heights, overlooking Brooklyn and New York City. He considered these soldiers to be his best units. On paper Washington probably had about 20,000 men in his army. But half of them were in various state militias, poorly trained, poorly equipped, and lacking discipline. Many in the regular army suffered from camp diseases and were too ill to fight. Facing them were General Howe and approximately 32,000 soldiers, including some 8,000 Hessians. Admiral Howe supported his brother with the largest expeditionary force Britain had ever dispatched — 10,000 sailors on 30 warships, with 1,200 guns and hundreds of supporting vessels. ‘Every thing breathes the Appearance of War,’ wrote the commander of one British frigate. ‘The Number of Transports are incredible. I believe there are more than 500 of different kinds, besides the King’s ships — a Force so formidable would make the first Power in Europe tremble . . . .’

On August 22 the British made their opening moves. In six hours Admiral Howe efficiently ferried his brother’s troops from Staten Island to Long Island and landed them below Greene’s position on Brooklyn Heights. Unfortunately for the Americans, Greene had become seriously ill, and Washington replaced him with John Sullivan of New Hampshire. Dissatisfied with Sullivan’s performance, Washington put another New Englander, Israel Putnam of Connecticut, in his place. As a result, he had a commander in the field who had no knowledge of the local terrain.

Washington worried about how his largely untested army would stand up under fire. In an attempt to motivate his men, he wrote out general orders and had them read to his troops. ‘The time is now near at hand, which must probably determine whether Americans are to be freemen or slaves whether they are to have any property they can call their own whether their homes and farms are to be pillaged and destroyed. The fate of unborn millions will now depend, under God, on the conduct and courage of this army . . . . We have therefore to resolve to conquer or die… ‘ General Putnam set up his line of defense on a wooded rise called the Heights of Guan. The ridge ran roughly parallel to the East River behind it. Four passes cut through the heights. The Americans were defending three of them, but in a colossal strategic blunder Putnam left the one on his left flank, Jamaica Pass, unprotected. It was all the advantage Howe needed. On the night of August 26 the British general personally took charge of a force of 10,000 troops under Sir Henry Clinton, Lord Charles Cornwallis, and Sir Hugh Percy and, guided by local Tories, moved through Jamaica Pass so he could fall upon the Americans from the rear. Early the next morning cannons signaled the British to begin their attack all along the American front. General Philip von Heister’s Hessians kept the American center busy, while General James Grant’s 5,000 troops hit the American right. Then Howe’s 10,000 soldiers emerged from Jamaica Pass and wrapped up the unprotected left flank and the American rear. Howe’s surprise was complete. ‘[W]e were ordered to attempt a retreat by fighting our way through the enemy, who had . . . nearly filled every field and road between us and our lines [at Brooklyn],’ wrote an American soldier. ‘We had not retreated a quarter of a mile before we were fired upon by an advanced part of the enemy, and those upon our rear were playing upon us with their artillery. Our men fought with more than Roman virtue . . . .’ The Hessians moving in from the center attacked especially fiercely — sometimes bayoneting Americans trying to surrender. ‘We took care to tell the Hessians that the Rebels had resolved to give no quarters to them in particular, which made them fight desperately and put all to death that fell into their hands,’ a British soldier wrote.

The day proved to be a disaster for the Americans, but it would have been even worse if not for the action of William Smallwood’s regiment of 400 to 500 men from Maryland, temporarily commanded by a young and capable major named Mordecai Gist. Although inexperienced, they were among the best and bravest troops that day. While under fierce attack they made an orderly retreat to the Cortelyou house, a stone structure that commanded the Mill Dam Road and bridge, the only escape route across the Gowanus Salt Marsh.

American General William Alexander (who claimed a Scottish title and called himself Lord Stirling) ordered Gist and 250 men to hold off the enemy while the other Americans withdrew across the Mill Dam Road. Not only did Gist’s men hold off the British, they made six counterattacks before being forced to scatter and make their individual ways back to the American lines. Watching from afar, General Washington turned to Israel Putnam. ‘Good God, what brave fellows I must this day lose,’ he said. Those few surviving Marylanders who could swim and who were lucky made it back. ‘There was in this action a regiment of Maryland troops (volunteers), all young gentlemen,’ recalled Joseph Plumb Martin, then 17 years old and a member of the nearby Connecticut Fifth. ‘When they came out of the water and mud to us, looking like water rats, it was a truly pitiful sight. Many of them were killed in the pond and many were drowned.’ The British had soon backed the Americans into a defensive position two miles across and about one mile deep on the shore of the East River. Fortunately for Washington, the winds had prevented Admiral Howe from sailing his fleet up the river and using his great firepower to wreak havoc with the patriots. The general knew only too well what would happen if the wind changed.

Despite the urging of subordinates who wanted to complete their victory, General Howe stopped his attack. Perhaps he feared a repeat of the costly and bloody ‘victory’ he had won at Bunker Hill. In a report to the British Parliament, Howe later said that the American army ‘could be had at a cheap price,’ meaning through a siege. Whatever Howe thought, his delay helped save Washington and the American cause.

Washington now called on Colonel John Glover of Massachusetts, who commanded one of the army’s crack regiments. Glover’s ‘Marvelous Men from Marblehead’ were well trained and wore smart blue-and-white uniforms. They were seamen and fishermen, so they were accustomed to shipboard discipline and were quick to carry out orders. As one Pennsylvania officer wrote, ‘[T]he only exception I recollect to have seen to the miserably constituted bands [Massachusetts regiments] was the regiment of Glover. There was an appearance of discipline in this corps.’ Washington had used Glover and his men before. The Hannah, the first ship to sail in the service of the new United States, was Colonel Glover’s own schooner, for which he found cannons and trained a crew and then successfully harassed British shipping and captured supplies for the Continental Army. In the wake of Hannah’s success, Washington asked Glover for two more ships to create what became known as ‘Washington’s Navy.’

John Glover is truly one of the forgotten men of American history. Born in 1732 a few houses away from the building where the accused Salem witches were imprisoned four decades earlier, he was apprenticed to a shoemaker and later moved to Marblehead, where he saved his money and bought a schooner. As a mariner he earned enough to purchase more ships. He joined the Marblehead militia in 1759 and soon worked his way up to the rank of captain of a ‘Military company of foot in the town of Marblehead.’ By 1776 he had become the regiment’s colonel. Washington knew that Glover was just the man to get his army out of its desperate situation. He also knew that there were spies in the ranks — one soldier had already been tried and hanged for his treachery and several others had been found guilty and put in prison — so he sent a misleading message to General William Heath on Manhattan: ‘We have many battalions from New Jersey which are coming over this evening to relieve those here. Order every flat-bottomed boat and other craft fit for transportation of troops down to New York as soon as possible.’ Then he ordered his quartermaster ‘to impress every kind of craft on either side of New York’ that had oars or sails, and to have them in the East River by dark. Anyone intercepting the messages would think that Washington was planning to bring reinforcements to Long Island in reality he hoped to evacuate his entire army before the British realized what he was doing.

The weather was still on Washington’s side. A drenching storm kept ‘Black Dick’s’ fleet out of the river and provided cover for the boat gathering. Late in the afternoon Washington met with his staff to tell them his real plans. As Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge wrote in a letter, ‘to move so large a body of troops with all their necessary appendages across a river a full mile wide, with a rapid current, in the face of a victorious, well-disciplined army nearly three times as numerous seemed . . . to present most formidable obstacles.’ The colonel was guilty of understatement.

The August nights were short, and Washington knew that if Glover had miscalculated the time required for the Herculean job, he would lose any troops unlucky enough to remain on the island at dawn. He had faith in the ‘tough little terrier of a man,’ and to help him he assigned a regiment of men from the Massachusetts towns of Salem, Lynn, and Danvers, sailors all.

The seamen began their work as soon as it was dark, about ten o’clock. The drenched Continentals left their entrenchments unit by unit and moved to the boats in darkness and in absolute silence. Each unit was told only that they were being relieved and were going back to Manhattan. They did not know that the entire army was doing the same thing. By the time any disloyal soldier discovered the truth, it would be too late for treachery. The quartermaster’s men had found only a few sailing craft, so there was much rowing to be done that night. At first the winds were favorable and the boats swiftly made the round trip to Manhattan, despite darkness and unfamiliar waters. Seamen in the rowboats plied them back and forth without a stop, oars muffled, across the fast East River current.

Washington stayed in the saddle, weary though he must have been. For several hours the situation looked favorable, but then the wind changed, blowing in combination with the unusually strong ebb tide. The sails could not overcome the two combined forces. Washington’s despair was partially alleviated when the men rigged the sailboats with temporary tholes, found oars, and rowed. But the tired general realized that many rearguard troops would still be on the island when dawn broke. Their loss would be a serious blow. Yet the seamen continued their race against time. ‘It was one of the most anxious, busy nights that I ever recollect,’ Benjamin Tallmadge recalled, ‘and being the third in which hardly any of us had closed our eyes in sleep, we were all greatly fatigued.’ At one point a rearguard unit under Colonel Edward Hand mistakenly received orders to move down to the water. Its movement left a gap in the lines that the British, had they been aware of it, could have used to smash through the American defenses. But the British didn’t know, and Washington, when he saw what had happened, hurriedly ordered the unit back into place.

In a few more hours luck rejoined the patriots. The wind changed direction and Glover’s men could again use their sails to speedily make the crossings and return. The tempo of the evacuation picked up, but the fickle wind had done its damage. As the dim first-light appeared in the cloudy, gray eastern sky, part of the rear guard was still on the wrong side of the river. As the sky lightened, however, a dense fog rolled in, obscuring the operation’s final movements. Colonel Tallmadge was in one of the last units to leave, and with regret he left his horse tied on the Long Island shore. Safe in New York, the fog as thick as ever, Tallmadge said, ‘I began to think of my favorite horse, and requested leave to return and bring him off. Having obtained permission, I called for a crew of volunteers to go with me, and guiding the boat myself, I obtained my horse and got some distance before the enemy appeared in Brooklyn.’ When the morning fog began to lift and the British patrols warily came to check on the American breastworks, they found them empty. Washington and the last of the rear guard were aboard the boats and sailing to safety. George Washington’s faith in John Glover and the seagoing soldiers had been vindicated. In about nine hours they had whisked 9,000 men and their supplies and cannon out from under the noses of the British. The Revolutionary cause lived on. Later that day, August 30, 10 British frigates and 20 gunboats and sloops finally sailed up the river. They were too late.

This article was written by J. Jay Myers and originally published in the June 2001 issue of American History Majalah. Untuk artikel hebat lainnya, berlangganan American History majalah hari ini!


Tonton videonya: Battle of Long Island American Revolution 1776